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Identification And Prevention of Foot&Mouth Disease In Cattle And Sheep

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Identification And Prevention of Foot&Mouth Disease In Cattle And Sheep

Update Time:2023/9/18
With the development of society, people's pursuit of material life is getting higher and higher, and the demand for cattle, mutton and other foods is also increasing rapidly, which greatly promotes the development of animal husbandry. However, in large-scale breeding, various epidemics are easy to occur, among which foot&mouth disease is highly infectious, which has a serious impact on the economic benefits of cattle and sheep breeding. foot&mouth disease is mainly caused by the infection of foot&mouth disease virus in even-hoofed animals such as cattle and sheep. It is a contact and thermal infectious disease with a very high incidence rate, and has the characteristics of fast transmission and diverse transmission routes, causing huge economic losses to farmers. Therefore, the World Health Organization ranks foot&mouth disease as the first zoonotic disease, which has a great impact on the safety of livestock and livestock products in various regions of the world.
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1 Epidemiology

1.1 Epidemic Characteristics

The disease originally originated in cattle, and the foot&mouth disease virus parasitic in the secretions and excretions of infected cattle. After animal infection, in the early stage of disease, the virus is the most toxic and the detoxification amount is the largest. And the disease is extremely difficult to cure, even if cured, the affected cattle will continue to detoxify in the following 4 to 6 months, some of the steak poison time even up to 12 months. foot&mouth disease has the characteristics of wide spread area, severe disease, rapid onset, etc. It can spread rapidly in a large range of cattle and sheep. The onset of the disease has no time limit, and it can reach its peak in spring and winter festivals. And the incidence of young animals is relatively high, and the mortality is very high.

1.2 Typical Symptoms

Cattle and sheep infected with foot and mouth disease, in the mouth, breast, hooves and other parts will appear a large number of blisters. After the pregnant mother is infected with the epidemic, the pups are very prone to acute myocarditis, and the fatality rate is very high. The symptoms of foot&mouth disease are closely related to the disease resistance of cattle and sheep. Sheep infected with foot&mouth disease virus, the symptoms of more severe, the trachea, bronchus, stomach mucosa and other parts will appear different degrees of rotten spots, ulcers, and the front stomach, large and small intestine and other viscera mucosa will appear a lot of inflammation, some sheep will even appear myocardial soft symptoms.

The incubation period of foot&mouth disease virus in cattle is long. In the early stage of infection, the infected cattle will show sudden rise in body temperature, loss of appetite, listlessness and other symptoms. With the deterioration of the infected cattle's disease, the oral disease will be aggravated.

2 Differential Diagnosis

2.1 Differential Diagnosis

In the clinical diagnosis of foot&mouth disease, it is easy to misdiagnose it with stomatitis. Compared with the two, in the early stage of stomatitis in cattle and sheep, small papules appear in the nostrils and cheeks of the affected animal, accompanied by a brief mild fever, and then the papules gradually turn red, and finally the diseased tissue becomes necrosis, and the lesions become scars. If only stomatitis occurs, the impact on cattle and sheep is small, the lesion will gradually heal itself, and will not affect the affected animal organs.

2.2 Diagnosis

Based on the epidemic characteristics and typical symptoms of foot&mouth disease, it is usually possible to make a determination without the help of laboratory diagnosis. However, in order to accurately determine the type of pathogenic virus, it is recommended to place the vesicular skin (or vesicular fluid) of the mouth or foot of infected cattle and sheep in glycerol saline (concentration of 50%), and send it to the relevant laboratory for complement binding reaction to identify the virus type.

Using the TAEING Fmouth Disease rapid test kit for cattle and sheep, it is possible to detect the presence of Fmouth disease in cattle and sheep. Compared with sampling and inspection, FMD of cattle and sheep is more convenient and fast.

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3 Preventive Measures

3.1 Vaccination

Investigate the local history and incidence of foot&mouth disease in detail, record and analyze the incidence of foot&mouth disease in a comprehensive way, formulate corresponding vaccination plans, and choose vaccination. At present, there are many kinds of foot&mouth disease vaccines on the market, and their effects are relatively significant, such as inactivated vaccines, high immune serum, synthetic peptide vaccines, etc. It is necessary to use them rationally to effectively reduce the incidence of foot&mouth disease.

3.2 Disinfection Management

Strengthen environmental health management of cattle and sheep activities. According to the farming scale and farming method, scientific disinfection plan should be formulated for each detail process in environmental management, and the growth environment of foot&mouth disease bacteria should be completely destroyed. At present, the common disinfectants on the market such as lime milk (10%), ammonia water (5%), burning lye (3%) [4] can play a significant role in practical application.

4 Treatment Measures

4.1 Treatment and nursing

After the occurrence of cases, the epidemic situation should be reported to the superior in time, and the isolation for diagnosis, treatment, disinfection or culling. "Early detection, early treatment, early culling" as the principle to control the epidemic. After quarantine of infected animals, it is necessary to determine the type of epidemic disease and symptomatic treatment. Ice boron powder (or iodine glycerin) can be applied to the ulcer surface of the mouth of the affected animal. Hoof infected animals, can use a concentration of 3% of the odor solution on the hoof, after the ointment dry, in the application of ichthyolipid ointment, and bandage the affected area; For infected breasts, the breast can be washed with boric acid water with a concentration of 4%, and the affected area can be smears with iodine glycerin and penicillin ointment.
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4.2 Follow-up treatment of infected animals

For sick and dead animals, they should be burned in time and buried deep, and harmless treatment should be completed in strict accordance with the regulations. Clean and disinfect contaminated enclosures completely and thoroughly to avoid infection of healthy herds with residual bacteria from carcasses. After the completion of harmless treatment or cure of the infected animal, it is necessary to report to the higher authorities, and professional quarantine personnel will test the regional epidemic situation, and carry out comprehensive disinfection treatment of the regional environment. After 15 days of isolation in the area, no abnormality can be entered into the normal culture track.
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